Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) is a light yellow crude oil, extracted from the palm kernels, containing mainly Lauric acid, Palmitic acid and Oleic acid. It is an edible plant oil which derived from the kernel of the oil palm has unique strong taste and smell. It is commonly used in commercial cooking because of its relatively low cost. It remains stable at high cooking temperatures and can be stored longer than other vegetable oils. The two oils, i.e. Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil derived from oil palm fruit are entirely different in fatty acid composition. Palm kernel oil, coconut oil and palm oil are three of the few highly saturated vegetable fats. Its lack of cholesterol and trans fatty acids, viewed as being heart healthy attributes. Indonesia is the top importer for this product.
The fatty acid composition, physical and chemical properties of palm kernel oil is very similar to those of coconut oil. Palm kernel oil mainly contains Lauric acid, Palmitic acid and Oleic acid. It has Iodine value of 18.5 approximately. Due to high content of lauric acid and low level of un–saturation, gives the palm kernel oil its high melting point.
It is used to manufacture RBD Palm Kernel Oil, which is used in food industries and oleochemical industries. RBD Palm Kernel Olein is derived by fractionation of RBD palm kernel oil. It is used to manufacture soap noodles blended with palm oil. Lauric acid, palmitic acid and other fatty acid are manufactured from this oil.
A palm oil mill produces Crude Palm Oil (CPO), Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) and other biomass from fresh fruit bunches. Palm kernel oil is obtained from the kernel of the oil palm fruit. The low level of free fatty acid makes the quality of the oil excellent. It can be further fractionated to yield a high value fraction – such as Palm Kernel Stearin with good melting properties. The sharp melting profile also indicates that the oil is highly suitable for many industries, including food manufacturing, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as well as the biodiesel sector.
Crude Palm Kernel Oil:
Derived from the palm kernel, which is edible seed of the oil palm fruit. Different from palm oil, which is derived from the outer parts / pulp of the fruit Manufacture Process. Kernel is separated from other palm fruit material. Dried to remove moisture. Dried kernel is pressed and crushed to extract the crude palm kernel oil. Applications Oil Industry – Used to derive different kind of fatty acids.
The fresh fruit bunch is firstly sterilized to prevent acidification of the oil. The sterilized fruit bunches are then fed to the thresher where the fruits will be separated from the bunches. The loose fruits are conveyed to a digester and then to a screw press to press out the palm oil. The remains which are the cake contain palm nuts and are transferred to the palm kernel crushing plant. The cake is then passed through a column where air separates fibers and nuts as fiber is carried upwards due to the upward flow of air whereas the nut falls down due to gravity.
The nuts are then left cooled to prevent the fiber from sticking of kernel to the shell. The nuts are then fed to the nut cracking machine which has a centrifugal motion. In this machine, the nuts are fed to nut cracking machine which uses centrifugal motion to crack the nut into the kernel and shells. Small pieces of shell and dirt are separated in the winnowing system. The kernel is then fed to the hydrocyclone where the high circular motion of fluid, the kernel goes to the center of the cylinder whereas the shell will be removed via the overflow tube. The kernel is then dried as moisture will lead to the formation of fatty acid. The dried kernel is then crushed in a rotating screw which presses out the crude palm kernel oil which is stored in a tank for further processing.
Uses of Crude Palm Kernel Oil:
- In Ice cream
- In margarine
- In chocolate and confectionary products
- In soap and detergents
- Animal feed
- Food and bakery
- Fuel and biodiesel
- Industrial materials
Standard Specification of Crude Palm Kernel Oil