Cocoa butter substitute (CBS) is used directly in chocolate and confectionery fats. Cocoa butter substitute is widely used in making of confectionery, bakery coatings, compound chocolates, fillings & centers for biscuits, caramels, nougat & dairy fat substitutes in cheese and analogues.
It is becoming increasingly costly. Substitutes have been designed to use as alternatives. In the United States, 100% cocoa butter must be used for the product to be called chocolate. The EU requires that alternative fats not exceed 5% of the total fat content.
Substitutes include: Coconut, Palm, Soybean, Rapeseed, Cottonseed and Illipe oils; and Shea butter, Mango kernel fat and a mixture of mango kernel fat and palm oil and PGPR.
Cocoa butter is a major ingredient in practically all types of chocolates (white chocolate, milk chocolate, and dark chocolate). This application continues to dominate consumption of cocoa butter. Pharmaceutical companies use cocoa butter’s physical properties extensively. As a nontoxic solid at room temperature that melts at body temperature, it is considered an ideal base for medicinal suppositories.
Applications for Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS)
• For producing chocolate block
Cocoa butter typically has a melting point of around 34–38 °C (93–101 °F). Chocolate is solid at room temperature but readily melts once inside the mouth. Cocoa butter displays polymorphism, having different crystalline forms with different melting points.
Conventionally the assignment of cocoa butter crystalline forms uses the nomenclature of Wille and Lutton with forms I, II, III, IV, V and VI having melting points 17.3, 23.3, 25.5, 27.5, 33.8 and 36.3 °C, respectively. The production of chocolate aims to crystallize the chocolate so that the cocoa butter is predominantly in form V, which is the most stable form that can be obtained from melted cocoa butter. (Form VI either develops in solid cocoa butter after long storage, or is obtained by crystallization from solvents). A uniform form V crystal structure will result in smooth texture, sheen, and snap. This structure is obtained by chocolate tempering.
Melting the cocoa butter in chocolate and then allowing it to solidify without tempering leads to the formation of unstable polymorphic forms of cocoa butter. This can easily happen when chocolate bars are allowed to melt in a hot room and leads to the formation of white patches on the surface of the chocolate called fat bloom or chocolate bloom.