Aviation Jet Fuel A & A–1 are commonly referred to as JP54. This is the wrong terminology as there is no such grade of Jet Fuel. Jet A and Jet A–1 are what refineries offer. Jet fuel powers gas turbine aircraft engines. It’s the most used low Sulphur content kerosene worldwide. Colonial JP54 is similar to Jet A except the energy is 18.4 mj/Kg compared to the 42.8 mj/kg of Jet A. There is also a slight difference in additives.
Jet B is a fuel in the naphtha–kerosene region that is used for its enhanced cold–weather performance. However, Jet B’s lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle. For this reason it is rarely used, except in very cold climates. A blend of approximately 30% Kerosene and 70% Gasoline, it is known as wide-cut fuel. It has a very low freezing point of −60 °C (−76 °F) and a low flash point as well and it is primarily used in some military aircraft. It is also used in Canada because of its freezing point. Aviation Kerosene standards are published as GOST–10227-86. The standard consist of different properties. It separates paraffin and gasoline in the refinery.
Military organizations around the world use a different classification system of JP (for “Jet Propellant”) numbers. Some are almost identical to their civilian counterparts and differ only by the amounts of a few additives; Jet A–1 is similar to JP-8, Jet B is similar to JP–4. Other military fuels are highly specialized products and are developed for very specific applications. Jet fuels are sometimes classified as kerosene or naphtha-type. Kerosene-type fuels include Jet A, Jet A–1, JP–5 and JP-8. Naphtha-type jet fuels, sometimes referred to as “wide–cut” jet fuel, include Jet B and JP–4.
Jet A specification fuel has been used in the United States since the 1950s. It is usually not available outside the United States and a few Canadian airports such as Toronto and Vancouver, whereas Jet A–1 is the standard specification fuel used in the rest of the world other than the former Soviet states where TS–1 is the most common standard. Both Jet A and Jet A–1 have a flash point higher than 38°C (100°F), with an auto ignition temperature of 210°C (410°F).
Aviation Kerosene Colonial Grade JP54 is an abbreviation for “Jet Propulsion, A1 and Kerosene Colonial Grade 54”. During the refining process only 15% of the crude oil is made up of JP54 and the rest of the grade is used for different types of plastic.
Developed by JP Morgan, Colonial grade JP54 was replaced by AVGAS also known as AVGAS100LL, it’s the number one low Sulphur content kerosene used worldwide. It’s gasoline!
JP54 powers gas turbine aircraft engines. Jet A and A–1 have specifications that can be used in fuel worldwide. Jet B is used in cold weather elements. Commonly a number of different mixtures make up jet fuel and this relates to flash points and how the carbon numbers are distributed.
Actually most Jet Fuel exported from Russia etc. is “JP54” or “Colonial JP54”. It is similar to “Jet A” except the specific Energy is 18.4 mj/kg. compared to that of 42.8 mj/kg. of “Jet A”. Also there is a slight difference in additives. The Jet fuels come in a number of flavors. There is a 100+ page handbook needed to specify them all. However, all the Jet fuels relate to additives to A1, which allows the plane not to leave a white tail in the sky showing where a plane has been.
Jet Fuel is Kerosene, and not a distillate like Gasoil/Diesel. In the refinery, it separates above gasolines and parafines. There is no special temperature consideration to consider. Remember that at 40,000 feet it is –46ºC more or less regardless of where you are and the season. The only problem related to temperature is when you fill in a wet, hot climate, the air you take along in the same tanks contains a lot of water that condenses and forms spiking ice crystals that will destroy the jet turbine. The airlines has fixed this with additives, usually fatty acids. Military Grade Jet Fuel is produced by the refineries and delivered directly since they will require special additives.
Standard Specification For Aviation Jet Fuel: